HPT MAGAZINE - A Heat Pump Centre Product Web version
3822 HPT nyhetsbrev 2018
25623 HPT Magazine 3 2023 COVER
Heat Pumps in District Heating and Cooling Energy Grids

Welcome, dear readers, to the vibrant and insightful third edition of Heat Pumping Technologies Magazine. In this issue, we embark on an exciting exploration of the cutting-edge domain of "Heat Pumps in District Heating and Cooling Energy Grids."

Our journey takes us through the intricate tapestry of district energy systems, unraveling the innovative role that heat pumps play in reshaping the way we heat and cool our communities. From urban centers buzzing with life to the peaceful neighborhoods of suburbia, we uncover the transformative potential of heat pumps in our everyday lives.

Titled Empowering Communities: GreenSCIES and the Future of Low-Carbon District Heat Networks, our Foreword section sets the stage for a deep dive into the world of sustainable energy solutions. It illuminates the path toward greener practices, guiding us toward a future where heat pumps are not just a choice but a transformative necessity in the face of climate change urgency.

In our Column section, we explore the intriguing concept that “The colder the climate, the easier it is to sell heat pumps,” shedding light on the strategic nuances that drive the success story of Finland’sadoption of heat pumps in diverse environments.

From uncovering the multidimensional aspects to navigating the challenges and seizing the opportunities, the articles featured in this issue will be your guide. As we traverse the landscape of energy efficiency and sustainable solutions, let this edition serve as a beacon, illuminating the potential of heat pumps as cornerstones in the realm of district heating and cooling.

Thank you for joining us on this enlightening journey. Together, let’s explore, learn, and pave the way towards a greener, more sus­tainable future.

Find the folowing content in the full Magazine

Foreword: "Empowering Communities: GreenSCIES and the Future of Low-Carbon District Heat Networks"

Column: The Colder the Climate, the Easier it is to Sell Heat Pumps


Model Predictive Control as a System Integrator in a Heat Pump-Driven District Heating Network

New Heat Pump Concept for Temperature Flexible Low-Temperature Operation used for District Heating

The Agony of the Choice in District Large-scale Demand Response of Heat Pumps

Large-scale Demand Response of Heat Pumps to Support the National Power System

Market report: Belgium - Heat Pump Market Report

Annex Updates

Annex 54: Heat Pump Systems with Low Global Warming Potential (GWP) Refrigerants

Annex 60: Retrofitting Heat Pump Systems in Large Non-domestic Buildings

Annex 61: Heat Pumps in Positive Energy Districts

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Model Predictive Control as a System Integrator in a Heat Pump-Driven District Heating Network
The European Union’s climate goals necessitate the decarbonization of the residential heating sector, emphasizing building envelope renovations and efficient, carbon-neutral heat generation. This article focuses on an innovative heating system in Bruges, Belgium, exemplified by Almshouses De Schipjes, a heritage housing complex renovated with a renewables-based heat supply.

The system incorporates a ground-source heat pump (GSHP), solar thermal collectors, and a low-temperature district heating (DH) network. Additionally, booster heat pumps (BHPs) provide localized heating. The existing rule-based controller (RBC) governs the system but faces challenges in optimizing energy use and thermal comfort.

The article proposes a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) as a system integrator for enhanced performance. The MPC utilizes a mathematical model, predictions, constraints, and a cost function to optimize control actions. The predictive horizon considers future events, enabling anticipation. The study compares MPC and RBC through a simulation of De Schipjes, evaluating electrical energy use, thermal comfort, and COP (Coefficient of Performance).
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New Heat Pump Concept for Temperature Flexible Low-Temperature Operation Used for District Heating
Denmark, with approximately 350,000 homes still reliant on natural gas heating, aims to swiftly transition these homes to a CO2-neutral heat supply for reduced greenhouse gas emissions. A groundbreaking heat pump concept for low-temperature district heating, funded by the Danish Development and Demonstration program for Energy Technology (EUDP), offers a promising alternative to traditional district heating solutions.

Implemented in Avedøre Landsby, Denmark, the project involves a new hybrid district heating system for a village district with 300 consumers. Key components include a temperature-flexible district heating interface unit, a Flex-Temperature District Heating grid, and a Flex-Energy Central with a cascade-coupled heat-pump system, a boiler modified for green fuels, and a PV array.

Advantages of low-temperature district heating (LTDH) and ultra-low-temperature district heating (u-LTDH) systems are highlighted, emphasizing lower heat losses, increased integration of renewable energy sources, and the use of plastic distribution pipes. However, challenges include retrofitting existing housing designed for higher temperatures.

The article introduces the Flex-Booster Heat Interface Unit (HIU), a cost-efficient solution for u-LTDH systems. It provides temperature flexibility, ensuring economic operation of the district heating grid and offering advantages such as increased COP (Coefficient of Performance) and reduced pipe dimensions. The Flex-Booster’s modular configurations accommodate various consumer needs, enabling flexibility for different-sized consumers and large-scale users.
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The Agony of the Choice in District Heating: The Impact of Heat Source for Heat Pumps
The majority of heat supply in Germany relies on fossil fuels, with district heating covering 8.2% of the heat supply. Large-scale heat pumps have the potential to replace gas and oil boilers in district heating, but their adoption in Germany is limited. This article explores the impact of heat sources on the efficiency of large-scale heat pumps, emphasizing the need for a detailed evaluation of potential heat sources to promote their market penetration.

Heat sources are categorized as natural (air, geothermal energy, water) and non-natural (industrial waste heat). Air, as a natural heat source, exhibits significant temperature fluctuations, while river water and sewage water show more stability. Understanding the characteristics of these heat sources is crucial for planning large-scale heat pump systems.

The Carnot-COP (Coefficient of Performance) is used to assess the theoretical efficiency of heat sources at a constant district heating temperature of 75 °C. Air, with its high daily temperature variation, shows a Carnot-COP between 5 and 9 in summer and 4 and 5 in winter. River water and sewage water, with minor temperature differences, exhibit more stable Carnot-COP values, ranging from 5 to 5.5 in winter and up to 6.5 in summer.
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Large-Scale Demand Response of Heat Pumps to Support the National Power System
The global increase in intermittent electricity production from renewable sources calls for more flexible electricity consumption to address grid challenges and prevent curtailment of renewable energy. This article, based on a Swedish research project, explores the potential of using heat pumps for demand response to enhance power system flexibility and discusses barriers related to technical constraints in heat pumps, communication standards, and cybersecurity.

Controlling heat pumps for demand response through manufacturers’ existing cloud and API solutions enables rapid deployment. The article emphasizes that utilizing the manufacturers’ hardware already in place significantly lowers investment costs compared to solutions requiring new hardware. While control functionalities exist for users via apps, additional features enabling demand response to the power system are still under development.

Existing communication standards for aggregating, cloud services, and individual heat pumps are crucial. The article identifies OpenADR and IEEE 2030.5 as US-based standards with potential, while EEBus and EFI/S2 are considered promising European alternatives. The evaluation emphasizes the importance of adopting standards to ensure effective communication between stakeholders.
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National Heat Pump Market Report: Belgium
Belgium, historically a slow adopter of heat pump technology, has seen significant shifts in the sector over the past four years. 

Despite challenges, the country has experienced ups and downs in the installation of heat pumps, particularly in the context of energy-efficient buildings. The past turbulent years, marked by economic and energy crises, have influenced the heat pump market in Belgium.

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